World's Oldest University


Senin, 14 Desember 2009

Muslims are lovers of science. Al Azhar University in Egypt is the proof. Pengen know its history? Let's read unison!

أ ¢ â, ¬ إ "To demand that science must أ ¢ â, ¬ آ | أ ¢ â, ¬? Thus our beloved Prophet Muhammad. Yes, from a hadith that we came to know that Islam is a religion of love and glorify science and hate ignorance. So strange not dong that Muslim history is always decorated with a variety of scientific works of the scholars in different disciplines, not merely religious affairs.

Not only that, the Muslim leaders, both the level of Deputy or the trustees (governors) and Amil (level regents / mayors) are also keen to build various centers of science and culture. No other as part of the intellectual program. In addition to quality free too. Not like now time ye, a lot of quality but no one is free. Baghdad in Iraq began, Cordoba in Spain to the continent of Africa adorned the center of education, arts and culture. Pelajarnya also not just Muslims, infidels from various countries also follow-up courses, including taking courses in the religion of Islam as Arabic, tafsir, fiqh usul, etc..

Well, one of the centers of Islamic education in Cairo, Egypt. Al Azhar University name. And you know what? It turned out that Al Azhar is the oldest university in the world and leading. In addition, Al-Azhar have passed many of the world's leading scholars of Islam who keitung amount. Call it a name like DR. Qardlawi Yusuf, Shaykh Sayyid Sabbiq, Nabhani Taqiyuddin Shaykh Muhammad Al-Ghazali, and much more. Including many well-graduate scholars are the sons and daughters of Indonesia. Great is not it?

Originally Mosque
At first, Al Azhar University أ ¢ â, ¬? Just أ ¢ â, ¬ â "¢ a mosque. Is a war commander who Fathimiyyah dynasty ruling in Egypt, called Jawhar As the first Siqilli initiated the establishment of Al-Azhar mosque. The mosque was built during the two years beginning in the year 358 Hijriyyah. Completed in Ramadhan 361 AH, or comes in the year 972 AD. On 7 Ramadhan 361 AH, the first Friday prayers at the mosque which is going to be the world's history.

According to historical records, Al Azhar is the first mosque built in Cairo and the fourth in Egypt. Originally the mosque was built to spread the doctrine Syi أ ¢ â, ¬ â "¢ ah who was then ruling in Egypt, namely Fathimiyyah dynasty. Cairo itself is the fourth city built in Egypt after Al-Fustat by Amr ibn al-Ash in the year 20 AH (641 AD), Al Azhar by Saleh bin Ali in the year 133 AH (751 AD) and Al Qataie by Ahmad bin in Toulloun 256 AH (870 AD).

The scholars chronicle (history) disagreed about the origins of naming Al-Azhar. Some of them said the name was taken from the glorious city of Cairo which was surrounded by buildings that were magnificent. Some longer believe in the name of Al-Azhar mosque was taken from the status of developing it into a center of Islam. While others believed that the mosque's name was taken from the name of the Prophet's daughter. Fathima Az Zahra, as a sign of glory and love of people and the leaders of the dynasty Fathimiyyah him.

Along the way, the mosque of Al Azhar to change the main building by Gohar As Siqili still Fathimiyyah dynasty. At the mosque Fathimiyyah formed a unique style, this section consists of 76 columns of white marble. On the back of the sanctuary, then add 50 dynasties fruit Utsmaniyyah marble columns glowing. After the Mamluk Sultan was also doing more renovations and additions at Al-Azhar Mosque.

In the 14th century AD, then added an Islamic education center named Madrasah Taibarsi At the behest of Prince Alauddin At Taibarsi. The school itself serious attention and treated like a treasure isitmewa during the reign of Nasser bin An Qalawoon. Another madrasa named Al Aqbaghawi also built at Al-Azhar Mosque complex. At both the Al Taibarsi and equally Aqbaghawi taught Islamic law. After that third madrasa was also constructed by Jawhar al-Qanqabai.

In the reign of the Mamluk Sultan, made the project a major renovation at the Al Azhar mosque complex, including to build the pavilion as a place of lodging for students. The inn itself is given for a period of four months for students. Every district in the land of Egypt and other Islamic countries have allocated the inn at the pavilion.

The project includes renovation of the addition of an area of 3300 square meters, so the total area of Al-Azhar mosque complex to be 7800 square meters, which can accommodate about 20 thousand people flock to pray. No doubt about it if a large renovation project of this scale has changed the status of Al-Azhar became a famous Islamic centers and make Egypt as the leading country throughout the Islamic world.

When Utsmaniyyah dynasty based in Turkey assume Caliphate, major renovations took place. The most important renovation done by the Amir Abdurrahman Katkhuda. He expanded the mosque area in the rear chamber of the original building and adding a section face a new mosque which until now can you see if you are able to visit there. Amir Abd Katkhuda also added three new towers, two of which are still standing in the south and west. In addition, he also added a portal in the south of the front of the mosque, also rebuilding the front of the madrassas Taybarsiyya and set up a dome in the southeast corner of the expansion of the mosque. Other buildings added to the mosque is a kitchen where food was served from the generous donations, and then also a room built residence for students and visitors in this age can not afford.

Educational Activities at Al-Azhar
Three and a half years after being founded, Al Azhar started to become the center of public education. In the month of Ramadhan 365 AH, coincided with the month of October 975 AD, during the reign of Al Muiz, a scholar Syi أ ¢ â, ¬ â "¢ ah named Abu al-Hasan Ali bin An-Nu أ ¢ â, ¬ â" ¢ El Kairawany man, who also became head of District Court in Cairo, Al overview discusses a book by the father of Abu Hanifa An-Nu أ ¢ â, ¬ â "¢ man, a Jurist Syi أ ¢ â, ¬ â" ¢ ah. This activity was followed by many people from various walks of life. This activity was followed by a variety of educational activities other than the ulama, particularly Syi أ ¢ â, ¬ â "¢ ah.

In Fathimiyyah dynasty, Al-Azhar became part of the intellectual life. In addition to the regular studies, moral education for women was also held there. Al-Azhar also became the official office of the judges and the government accounting for nearly 2 centuries. Glory Al Azhar increased especially after the decline in educational achievements of the Islamic center in Baghdad and Andalusia.

In the year 1160 the dynastic power Syi أ ¢ â, ¬ â "¢ ah replaced collapse Fathimiyyah Sunni power under the rule of Saladdin. At that time, subsidies for the construction of mosques Syi أ ¢ â, ¬ â "¢ ah and immediately stopped their education. Fortunately responsive government. When the Mamluk sultanate ruled various development and scholarship re-flow.

When the Mongol army to attack and destroy the Central Asian Muslim forces in al-Andalus, Al-Azhar mernjadi only center for the education of the scholars and Muslim intellectuals who were driven from their home country. The student is then credited it the name of Al Azhar during the 8th century, and 9 H (14 and 15 M). In addition to developing the science of religion, the scholars and intellectuals also develop knowledge in the field of medicine, mathematics, astronomy, geography and history.

In Utsmaniyyah dynasty, Al-Azhar able independently, free from state subsidies. This is possible because the amount of funds from waqaf and shadakah society. Students can also learn a variety of knowledge and gain knowledge books free of charge. This has attracted the attention of scholars and students to join in Al Azhar. So special about Al-Azhar to the extent dynasty for Utsmaniyyah give people the freedom to choose their own Egyptian high priest of Al Azhar, without the intervention of the caliph.

Educational activities at Al Azhar had stopped when the French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Egypt in the year 1213 H/1789 M. Napoleon himself the honor of Al Azhar clerical. In fact, he formed a council consisting of nine sheikh to rule Egypt. But it did not stop the war between the Muslims under the leadership of Sheikh Mohammed Al-Sadat against French imperialism. Seeing the situation was finally Al Azhar Grand Imam and the scholars have agreed to close the learning activities at Al Azhar for jihad fi Sabilillah activity.

Three years after the French troops out of Egypt, Al-Azhar then reopened. But the Muslim rulers seem to have lost its power. That when Muhammad Ali ruled Egypt in the year 1220 H/1805 M, he even sent the students of Al Azhar to study in Europe for the purpose of modernizing the Muslim world. Still, Al Azhar still be somewhat educational centers unusual for the Islamic world.

According to past records, now there are about 40 of the faculty for students and students of Al Azhar, both in Cairo and in Assiut, Aswan, Qina, Diemyat, Suhat, Alexandria, Garga, Zagazig, Tanta, Mansoura, Menofiya, Damanhour and Shebin Al Koum. Yes, now the University of Al Azhar education has indeed been extended to several cities in Egypt. If you are interested you can take the religious sciences and the science of agriculture, engineering, pharmacy, etc.. Interested? Contact aja Egyptian Embassy, or? آ immediately wrote to the address below:

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